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Benign Urothelium : Lamina Propria

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The smooth muscle bundles of muscularis mucosa in the lamina propria are associated with a rich capillary network and medium-sized blood vessels. Tumors that invade lamina propria only are Stage T1 and are managed conservatively. When muscularis propria is invaded (Stage T2), the management consists of definitive therapy such as cystectomy or radiation. Distinction between muscularis mucosa and muscularis propria is therefore critical.

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