Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Reviewers: Michael P. Sedrak, M.D.; Dharam M. Ramnani, M.D. |
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for about 20% of all lung cancers. Like small cell carcinoma, it is strongly linked to smoking. The incidence of SCC of lung has been decreasing in the last few decades reflecting a declining trend in smoking. By definition, SCC shows keratinization and/or intercellular bridges. Undifferentiated non-small cell carcinomas expressing markers of squamous cell differentiation are also included in this category. Clinical Features: The presentation is similar to other non-small cell lung cancers. The usual symptoms include dyspnea, cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, hoarseness of voice, fever and weight loss. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of presentation. Patients may develop paraneoplastic manifestations due to hormones and other active substances secreted by the tumor. Amongst paraneoplastic syndromes seen in SCC of lung, hypercalcemia is frequent.