Angiosarcoma : Risk Factors
The risk factors for angiosarcoma include:
- Chronic lymphedema of any origin - especially arms of female patients who had modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer (Stewart-Treves Syndrome)
- Radiation - high doses, usually 50 Gy or more; for gynecologic and breast cancers, Hodgkin lymphoma
- Foreign bodies - AV fistula in renal transplant patients, shrapnel, synthetic vascular grafts, gouty tophi, arthroplasty, surgical sponges, and bone wax etc.
- Chemical carcinogens - Thorotrast for cerebral angiography (risk factor for hepatic angiosarcoma); exposure to vinyl chloride in rubber industry; exposure to arsenic containing insecticides in vineyard workers; and androgenic anabolic steroids
- Benign and malignant tumors - port wine stains, hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, nerve sheath tumors, leiomyomas
- Other diseases/conditions - Neurofibromatosis, bilateral retinoblastoma, xeroderma pigmentosum, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, chronic immunosuppression (HIV, renal transplantation), and stasis ulcers