The treatment of Graves disease consists of two-pronged approach. 1) Symptoms related to excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation (palpitations, tachycardia, anxiety) are treated with beta-blockers. 2) Thyroid hormone synthesis is brought under control with thionamides (e.g. propylthiouracil), radioiodine administration, or surgical resection. The image is from a partial thyroidectomy specimen following radioiodine ablation. Note the fibrosis as well as significant nuclear atypia (radiation-induced).