Neutrophils can be seen within the urothelium. The lamina propria contains dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Focally, the histologic features of papillary/polypoid cystitis may overlap with those of urothelial carcinoma. One has to look at the lesion in its entirety. Correlation with cystoscopic findings is extremely helpful in difficult cases. Urologists can often correctly distinguish between inflammatory and neoplastic processes on cystoscopy.