Diffuse Idiopathic Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) refers to proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells within the walls of airways. It forms nodular or papillary cellular aggregates that may protrude into the bronchial lumen causing mucus plugging, airway obstruction, air-trapping, and bronchiectasis. Usually, there is chronic inflammatory infiltrate nearby along with peribronchiolar fibrosis. The cells are round to oval in shape with moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm and uniform nuclei with salt and pepper chromatin.