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Ameloblastoma : Treatment

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Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive tumor with a high recurrence rate. Small islands of tumor cells often infiltrate into the adjacent cancellous bone at the tumor periphery. These islands are left behind if the tumor is removed by curettage resulting in an unacceptably high recurrence rate of 45%-90%. Recurrences donít become clinically apparent for several years after the initial treatment.

The most widely used treatment modality is en-bloc resection with negative margins. The recurrence rate with this approach is about 15%. Removal of larger tumor often requires extensive reconstructive surgery. Given their location, ameloblastomas of posterior maxilla are more difficult to treat surgically. Radiation therapy is rarely used to treat ameloblastoma given its intraosseous location and the long-term risk of secondary malignancies.

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