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Neurofibromatosis 1 : Lisch Nodules

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Pigmented hamartomas of iris (Lisch nodules) are yellow-brown, raised papules that project from the surface of iris. They are composed of aggregates of dendritic melanocytes within the iris. They do not affect the vision but are very useful in the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 1. They are not present in normal individuals or in those with neurofibromatosis 2.

They can be detected with slit lamp examination in over 90% of NF1 patients over the age of six, together with scattered cafe-au-lait pigmented skin lesions and multiple neurofibromas (superficial or deep) in skin or other organs. Similar nodules are also found in Watson syndrome which is in addition characterized by macrocephaly, pulmonary stenosis, short status and low intelligence. By Dimitrios Malamos (Own work) [CC BY 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

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